Shashi. In other forums you have asked contributors to discuss social, political, environmental, and economic aspects of the challenges as well as technical. One of the epiphanies I had a about ten years ago is that water/wastewater technology development typically does not factor in anthropological considerations. For example, I visited a Maori community in New Zealand that had a state-of-the-art fully automated wastewater facility producing high quality tertiary treated effluent. Located on the coastline I noticed they did not discharge the treated water to an ocean outfall but, instead, were discharging the water to ground. When I asked why, I was told that their cultural practice was to have wastewater blessed by Papatūānuku or the land - representing a mother earth figure. The concept of passing treated wastewater through the soil or wetlands is now understood to be a robust method of natural treatment and attenuation and degradation of the many chemicals that we discard to sewer or that pass through our bodies and can accumulate or otherwise impact the ecosystems in the receiving environment. As another example is the Australian experience for the City of Gold Coast. After many years of drought, that community elected to increase wastewater treatment to achieve an internationally accepted water reclamation and reuse standard, and distribute the reclaimed water for non-potable use within the community. When the drought ended people stopped using the reclaimed water and switched to only using potable water, presumably because of health concerns related to the psychological “yuck factor” associated with the reuse of wastewater or because of a lack of trust in the utility service to maintain water quality. As a result of the decreased non-potable water use, the water in the distribution system degraded to a point that the government was considering abandoning the reclaimed water treatment and distribution system. Fortunately, that was not done and the community continues to benefit from the reclaimed water system due to increased public communication about the benefits and safety of the system and aided by the fact the potable water use rate is about double the charge for non-potable water.