Target Industry and End-Uses of Green Fuels

Thanks @gyyang, @b0bbybaldi, @RegenTower and @Magneto - Thanks for sharing your thoughts. We have taken a note of it.

CO2 is routinely captured from natural gas wells and vented. Both Texas and California have oil fields that are amenable to CO2 enhanced oil recovery. Additional pipelines are needed to move that CO2 to where it can be utilized. The Gulf Coast produces a lot of energy in the form of oil and gas. Some of that oil is hydrotreated. Hydrogen is usually produced by steam reforming methane. There are CO2 emissions from that process. That CO2 can be captured and sent for EOR while the hydrogen can be used in refinery applications for hydrotreating the oil. Soft drinks, dry ice, and sodium bicarbonate (AlkaSeltzer) are all made from CO2. Captured CO2 needs to be substituted for mined CO2 or combustion generated CO2. Greenhouses can use some additional CO2 to accelerate plant growth. Cement can absorb CO2 from the atmosphere. MIT has indicated that concrete roadways and cement buildings can be optimized to capture more CO2 than they do today. Fermentation produces CO2. That CO2 can be collected and used in many of the processes above. Jet fuel is needed for air transportation. Fossil fuels can be gasified to produce a synthesis gas. The CO2 from that process can be captured and utilized in one of the steps above. The synthesis gas can be converted to jet fuel by the Fischer Tropsch process. Any light hydrocarbons that are produced can be burned to provide heat for the process. The CO2 generated can be captured and utilized as above. Any residual CO can be recycled back to the synthesis gas reactor, thus, minimizing any CO2 emissions. The resulting jet fuel will then be a low carbon fuel.

Thanks @carlbozzuto for sharing these insights. I would further like to understand if the said fuel can be only used for transportation or for other industries as well?

Jet fuel is primarily kerosene. The FT process produces several hydrocarbon fuels. I suggested jet fuel because the airline industry does not have very many other options. The is no electric plane, no solar plane, no wind plane, no hydro plane, etc. Jet planes need jet fuel. In principle, once synthesis gas is available, nearly any hydrocarbon can be produced. Kerosene and diesel are very similar. Anything that uses diesel can use kerosene.