Major Constraints in regard to Frontline Health Systems in LMICs

@Shashi problem and solution description see Lancet website: Feasibility study for implementation of the AI-powered Internet+ Primary Care Model (AiPCM) across hospitals and clinics in Gongcheng county, Guangxi, China - ScienceDirect

In addition to missing primary care team model in rural areas, we also find routine specialty care collaborations across hospitals is generally missing. For example, covid-19 specialty care in LMICs will benefit from collaborating with more advanced hospitals. But such collaboration on a daily basis is too expensive to sustain if it requires lots of doctor involvement. This doctor resource constraint will need technology and AI to help resolve.

@ajchenx - Thank you AJ for sharing the resource link and the challenges faced in primary care team model.

The major constraints with frontline health systems for wealthy and not so wealthy nations, is that it is sickcare and not healthcare, that is the first principles approach to the problem and everything else can then be reasoned from there.

If we can reason from there, we can realise there are hundreds if not thousands of constraints with both the current sickcare and the prospective healthcare. Now the right question I think we need to ask is, what would we like to solve with the current sickcare regime and what would we like to solve with the healthcare system.

We might want to categories the process as follows, with obvious overlaps:


  1. Health Insurance.
  2. Diet
  3. Exercise.
  4. Screening.
  5. Vaccination.
  6. Mental Health.


  1. Administration (personal health records).
  2. Diagnostics.
  3. Treatment.
  4. Medication.
  5. Surgical.
  6. Rehabilitation.

And so on and so forth!
And lastly, across-board “data” format, accessibility and interoperability is a huge problem.

Thanks @bngejane for sharing your perspective on this topic. All good points.

In my experience, the biggest constraints when considering frontline healthcare systems in Mexico is two-fold as it involves both the medical infrastructure and the cultural use of health services by members of vulnerable population groups. For example, in indigenous localities typically located outside of urban environments, the health system can be considered a hybrid as it involves both traditional knowledge (e.g., word-of-mouth remedies) and the service provided by a young medical professional who stays in the community for less than 2 years according to federal educational guidelines and norms. Of course, there are NGOs that provide seasonal services through regional health campaigns. However, the systematization of clinical records is a big area of opportunity to improve epidemiological vigilance, timely diagnostics and orderly treatment of disease.

Which aspects of these systems require the most work?
Now that I am beginning to think about this, an aspect that would require the most work is creating a healthcare system that is aligned to local needs, because the population is so diverse, even if we tend to think of, for example, Mexico, as a unique, homogenous mass of people, diseases are diverse and dependent on regional, cultural, and social environments.

How can they benefit from advances in A.I. technology?
AI technology can be used to include the social factor in healthcare system designs, especially with respect to data collection and analysis.

@anaconnav - Thanks Ana for sharing your experience on this topic. This is really helpful in understanding the working of frontline health systems.