Re: Including Land Use as a Criteria Item for Sustainable Production
Land Use should definitely be included. But not in the way that LCA's usually do so.
LCA's mostly use the metric of "Land Occupation" (units = m2), where "greater land occuption" is "worse" because so much of agriculture is so damaging to ecosystems. In general, the Land Occupation metric is a good start because "m2" is tangible, easy to understand, and easily comparable across projects. HOWEVER, what's actually important is the
of that Land Occupation
it's temporal-spatial context.
of 1000 m2 of chemical-heavy corn production is often decreased soil health, damage to biodiversity, and some GHG emissions.
of 1000m2 of organically managed multi-strata agroforestry systems producing a starch crop (like breadfruit or chestnuts) is often increased soil health, greater biodiversity, and potentially GHG sequestration.
Both show "1000 m2" of Land Use. But the latter is healing the land, while the former degrades it. In many degraded agricultural and rangelands around the world, we want
"Land Occupation" if the impact is regenerative.
In either scenario, the preceding land use must be taken into account:
If intact rainforest was clear-cut 3 years ago to make room for that 1000 m2 of production, the damage done should be included in the calculations. Same for destruction of deep-rooted grasslands, mangrove deltas, etc.
If traditionally open agricultural or rangeland land is the preceding land use (usually a 20 year time horizon is used, I prefer 100-year or greater), then the negative land use change from e.g. deforestation is not added to the calculation.
Land Use should be included, but needs an "impact modifier" on a spectrum from "Degenerative" to "Regenerative" impact.
A few references for further reading:
Regenerative Agriculture Continuum
The Carbon Opportunity Cost / Forest Delta
The Carbon Farming Solution
by Eric Toensmeier
Re: Including Land Use as a Criteria Item for Sustainable Production
Yes, including land in the environmental impact assessment makes sense.
The area and quality of land available is critical to survival and quality of life. Land provides an area to capture sunlight and rainfall [two fundamental resources], supports ecosystems and agriculture, provides habitat, and underpins the infrastructure and activities of human civilisation. However, the availability of good quality land continues to be under threat. There are issues with: pollution; soil degradation and erosion; flooding; water availability, quality and demand; mono-culture plantations; and the destruction of ecosystems and biodiversity.
We should be aware that unconventional approaches to the production of food, materials, packaging and other products may arise in an XPRIZE challenge and so any assessment framework should support their evaluation too. For example, an industrial type approach might use buildings, renewable energy, nutrients, and a water supply (but no soil) - such as modern hydroponics. Or a similar approach might grow products in a vat. Different contexts may also appear, such as "growing" products in facilities in a desert [lots of renewable sunshine energy in the hot ones], or in the oceans.
On the subject of oceans, we have to be particularly careful that we don't repeat the (land based) mistakes of the past at sea, because its (potential) pollution and ecosystem disruption might initially be less apparent to us land dwellers. This could mean we are late to ring the alarm bells and take action [again]. But more importantly, it is very difficult to control what happens in the oceans - once the genie is out of the bottle. I would suggest that we adopt the Precautionary Principle.
Re: Circular Food Economy Framework - Feedback on Core Principles
Perhaps mention farmers and laborers and how they should be treated
Re: Potential countries for testing eHealth programs
Top 3 on the list:
India (and Bangladesh):- India possess extreme diversity of healthcare system (out-of-pocket + government + private insurance) with inadequate healthcare infrastructure to suffice the healthcare needs. It accounts for over 2 million+ front line healthcare staff with e-health solution and thus they could be empowered to reach out to resource constrained settings which accounts for more than 50% of the population. India's national health mission policy is well aligned with global SDG and thus offers a nurturing context for new innovations to try, test and scale. As health is a state government's topic of decision, its possible to pilot various forms of e-health solutions in one go. India also offers unprecedented scale, enormous smartphone penetration and decent level of english speaking population.
Tanzania:- Tanzania, situated on the eastern side of Africa, is a country faced with major challenges such as poor infrastructure, low education levels, poverty, and diseases exacerbate the extent of these challenges. The bold attempt, in the form of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) set by the United Nations (UN), to eradicate poverty, mortality, and combat diseases remains important for countries striving to improve the overall state of wellness of their societies. The country has recognized the shortages of health professionals as impacting very negatively on its ability to make progress in achieving health-related MDGs. In an attempt to fill the gap of health professionals, Tanzania has implemented a system of mid-level health workers (MLHWs) in relation to specific health service needs. The Tanzanian health system is decentralized, and framed most explicitly by its National Health Policy. The Tanzanian National Health Policy appears to be driven primarily by the objective to provide access to quality primary health care for all citizens.
El Salvador:- El Salvador is in the paradoxical situation of producing a relatively large overall number of health workers, yet not being able to meet population needs within the context of the country’s universal health care coverage and the new national health strategy of comprehensive primary health care. Hence it offers a great scope of e-health innovation unlike most other countries. Primary challenges include: a) Unemployment and under-employment due to overproduction of health workers in certain categories, financial inability of the health sector to recruit, and inequitable distribution of health workers at different levels of service b) A 43% deficit of health workers for primary care services coupled with inequitable geographic, demographic, and institutional distribution of existing resources c) Lack of health workers adequately trained for implementation of the current comprehensive health care strategy based on primary care d) Lack of an information system that allows timely HRH decision-making to solve problems and generate personnel actions oriented to the development and quality of care.
Bottom 3 on the list:
Pakistan (and Afghanistan, Nigeria):- These countries are not-so-safe when it comes to implementing healthcare solutions. The local government support will be limited and high level of malpractices adds to the extra trouble. It is advisable to work with support from global developmental agencies to thwart some of these aspects.
Rwanda (and Kenya):- Many developmental agencies and global organizations have already tried out various innovations across Rwanda and Kenya. These countries have become a battleground for innovations to secure funding and roll out projects for pilots. I find it bit hard to imagine extra efforts as a part of Xprize competition will help alleviate the situation for better.
Nepal (and Bhutan):- Vicinity to India, Bangladesh etc. and similarity in context with these countries takes away an explicit need of testing solutions here. Proven innovations from these huge countries will typically scale in Nepal and Bhutan without much challenges. Both governments are also supportive of innovations from neighbouring countries.
Elizabeth Ondula, here. I focus on the design and development of offline and online socio-technical systems that run or implement any form of artificial intelligence. I'm here to learn and to share knowledge.
Hello! My name is Jordan Shapiro, a Research Analyst with the Impact & Design Team at XPRIZE.
I am a Global Peace Ambassador with the Institute for Economics and Peace and my background focuses on the nexus of inclusive global institutions and conflict resolution.
Prior to XPRIZE, I completed a MA at Aberystwyth University, worked for an international development organization focusing on sustainable agriculture and water resources in Latin America and California, and worked in constituent support for the US Senate and the Plaid Cymru.
Looking forward to brainstorming with and learning from water experts.
Re: Poll: New Name for the Competition
ONE community XPRIZE
(O - one, N- Neighborhood, E - empowered)
Input Water: Black Wastewater
Systems that tackle
WHO 2017 wastewater definitions
, heavy metals, and pharmaceutical contamination.
Minimal Maintenance and Automated Operation
Minimally maintained, fully automated systems featuring simple user interface to increase confidence.
Re: Gender Data Gaps in Health
I agree with the top 10 ten list but I'd like to add another item (top 11 then).
Women's pain is largely ignored even when debilitating. Painful periods, endometriosis, myomas, prolapses, pain during intercourse etc - things that don't happen to men. This affect the quality of life of millions of women around the world and is very little researched.